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Chemical reactions : Chemical equation, Balanced chemical equation, implication of a balanced chemical equation, types of chemical reactions : Combination, decomposition, displacement, double displacement, precipitation, neutralization, oxidation and reduction.
Acids, bases and salts : Their definitions in terms of furnishing of H+ and OH- ions, General properties, examples and uses, concept of pH scale (Definition relating to logarithm not required), importance of pH in everyday life; preparation and uses of Sodium Hydroxide, Bleaching powder, Baking soda, Washing soda and Plaster of Paris.
Metals and nonmetals: Properties of metals and non-metals; Reactivity series; Formation and properties of ionic compounds; Basic metallurgical processes; Corrosion and its prevention.
Carbon compounds: Covalent bonding in carbon compounds. Versatile nature of carbon. Homologous series. Nomenclature of carbon compounds containing functional groups (halogens, alcohol, ketones, aldehydes, alkanes and alkynes), difference between saturated hydrocarbons and unsaturated hydrocarbons. Chemical properties of carbon compounds (combustion, oxidation, addition and substitution reaction). Ethanol and Ethanoic acid (only properties and uses), soaps and detergents.
Periodic classification of elements: Need for classification, Early attempts at classification of elements (Dobereiner’s Triads, Newland’s Law of Octaves, Mendeleev’s Periodic Table), Modern periodic table, gradation in properties, valency, atomic number, metallic and non-metallic properties.
Life processes : ‘Living Being’. Basic concept of nutrition, respiration, transport and excretion in plants and animals.
Control and co-ordination in animals and plants : Topic movements in plants; Introduction of plant hormones; Control and co-ordination in animals; Nervous system; Voluntary, involuntary and reflex action; Chemical co-ordination: animal hormones.
Reproduction : Reproduction in animals and plants (asexual and sexual) reproductive health-need and methods of family planning. Safe sex vs HIV / AIDS. Child bearing and women’s health.
Heredity and Evolution : Heredity; Mendel’s contribution - Laws for inheritance of traits : Sex determination : brief introduction; Basic concepts of evolution.
Reflection of light by curved surfaces; Images formed by spherical mirrors, centre of curvature, principal axis, principal focus, focal length, mirror formula (Derivation not required), magnification - Refraction; Laws of refraction, refractive index. Refraction of light by spherical lens; Image formed by spherical lenses; Lens formula (Derivation not required); Magnification. Power of a lens - Functioning of a lens in human eye, defects of vision and their corrections, applications of spherical mirrors and lenses - Refraction of light through a prism, dispersion of light, scattering of light, applications in daily life.
Electric current, potential difference and electric current. Ohm’s law; Resistance, resistivity, Factors on which the resistance of a conductor depends. Series combination of resistors, parallel combination of resistors and its applications in daily life. Heating effect of electric current and its applications in daily life. Electric power, Interrelation between P, V, I and R.
Magnetic effects of current : Magnetic field, field lines, field due to a current carrying conductor, field due to current carrying coil or solenoid; Force on current carrying conductor, Fleming’s Left Hand Rule, Electric Motor, Electromagnetic induction. Induced potential difference, Induced current. Fleming’s Right Hand Rule, Electric Generator, Direct Current. Alternating current : frequency of AC. Advantage of AC over DC. Domestic electric circuits.
Sources of energy : Different forms of energy, conventional and non-conventional sources of energy : Fossil fuels, solar energy; biogas; wind, water and tidal energy; Nuclear energy. Renewable versus non-renewable sources of Energy.
Out environment : Eco-system, Environmental problems, Ozone depletion, waste production and their solutions. Biodegradable and non-biodegradable substances.
Management of natural resources : Conservation and judicious use of natural resources. Forest and wild life; Coal and Petroleum conservation. Examples of people’s participation for conservation of natural resources. Big dams: advantages and limitations; alternatives, if any. Water harvesting. Sustainability of natural resources.
Chemical Equations-Types of Chemical Reactions-Have You Observed The Effects of Oxidation Reactions in Everyday Life?
Understanding The Chemical Properties Of Acids And Bases-What Do All Acids And All Bases Have In Common?-How Strong Are Acid Or Base Solutions?-More About Salts
Physical Properties-Chemical Properties of Metals-How do Metals and Non-Metals React?-Occurrence of Metals-Corrosion
Bonding in Carbon-The Covalent Bond-Versatile Nature of Carbon-Chemical Properties of Carbon Compounds-Some Important Carbon Compounds – Ethanol and Ethanoic Acid-Soaps and Detergents
Making Order Out of Chaos-Early Attempts at The Classification of Elements-Making Order Out of Chaos-Mendeleev’s Periodic Table-Making Order Out of Chaos-The Modern Periodic Table
Animals – Nervous System-Coordination in Plants-Hormones in Animals
Do Organisms Create Exact Copies of Themselves?-Modes of Reproduction Used By Single Organisms-Sexual Reproduction
Accumulation of Variation during Reproduction-Heredity-Evolution-Speciation-Evolution and Classification-Evolution Should Not Be Equated With ‘Progress’
Reflection of Light-Spherical Mirrors-Refraction of Light
The Human Eye-Defects of Vision and their Correction-Refraction of Light Through a Prism-Dispersion of White Light by A Glass Prism-Atmospheric Refraction-Scattering of Light
Electric Current and Circuit-Electric Potential and Potential Difference-Circuit Diagram-Ohm’s Law-Factors On Which The Resistance of A Conductor Depends-Resistance of A System Of Resistors-Heating Effect of Electric Current-Electric Power
Magnetic Field and Field Lines-Magnetic Field Due to a Current-Carrying Conductor-Force on a Current-Carrying Conductor in a Magnetic Field-Electric Motor-Electromagnetic Induction-Electric Generator-Domestic Electric Circuits
What is a Good Source of Energy?-Conventional Sources of Energy-Alternative or Non-Conventional Sources of Energy-Environmental Consequences-How Long will an Energy Source Last Us?
Eco-System-What Are Its Components?-How Do Our Activities Affect The Environment?