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CBSE Class 10 , Class 11 , Class 12 Subjects

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11th Standard CBSE Biology

Diversity of Living Organisms

Chapter-1: The Living World
What is living? Biodiversity; Need for classification; three domains of life; taxonomy and systematics; concept of species and taxonomical hierarchy; binomial nomenclature; tools for study of taxonomy-museums, zoological parks, herbaria, botanical gardens.
Chapter-2: Biological Classification
Five kingdom classification; Salient features and classification of Monera, Protista and Fungi into major groups: Lichens, Viruses and Viroids.
Chapter-3: Plant Kingdom
Salient features and classification of plants into major groups - Algae, Bryophyta, Pteridophyta, Gymnospermae and Angiospermae (three to five salient and distinguishing features and at least two examples of each category); Angiosperms - classification upto class, characteristic features and examples.
Chapter-4: Animal Kingdom
Salient features and classification of animals non-chordates up to phyla level and chordates up to class level (three to five salient features and at least two examples of each category). (No live animals or specimen should be displayed.)


Structural Organisation in Animals and Plants

Chapter-5: Morphology of Flowering Plants
Morphology and modifications: Tissues
Chapter-6: Anatomy of Flowering Plants
Anatomy and functions of different parts of flowering plants: root, stem, leaf, inflorescence, flower, fruit and seed (to be dealt along with the relevant experiment of the Practical Syllabus)
Chapter-7: Structural Organisation in Animals
Animal tissues: Morphology, anatomy and functions of different systems (digestive, circulatory, respiratory, nervous and reproductive) of an insect (cockroach). (a brief account only)


Cell: Structure and Function

Chapter-8: Cell-The Unit of Life
Cell theory and cell as the basic unit of life: Structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells; Plant cell and animal cell; cell envelope; cell membrane, cell wall; cell organelles - structure and function; endomembrane system, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi bodies, lysosomes, vacuoles; mitochondria, ribosomes, plastids, microbodies; cytoskeleton, cilia, flagella, centrioles (ultrastructure and function); nucleus, nuclear membrane, chromatin, nucleolus.
Chapter-9: Biomolecules
Chemical constituents of living cells: biomolecules, structure and function of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, enzymes, types, properties, enzyme action.
Chapter-10: Cell Cycle and Cell Division
Cell cycle, mitosis, meiosis and their significance.


Plant Physiology

Chapter-11: Transport in Plants
Movement of water, gases and nutrients; cell to cell transport, Diffusion, facilitated diffusion, active transport; plant-water relations, Imbibition, water potential, osmosis, plasmolysis; long distance transport of water - Absorption, apoplast, symplast, transpiration pull, root pressure and guttation; transpiration, opening and closing of stomata; Uptake and translocation of mineral nutrients - Transport of food, phloem transport, massflow hypothesis; diffusion of gases.
Chapter-12: Mineral Nutrition
Essential minerals, macro- and micronutrients and their role; deficiency symptoms; mineral toxicity; elementary idea of hydroponics as a method to study mineral nutrition; nitrogen metabolism, nitrogen cycle, biological nitrogen fixation.
Chapter-13: Photosynthesis in Higher Plants
Photosynthesis as a mean of autotrophic nutrition; site of photosynthesis, pigments involved in photosynthesis (elementary idea); photochemical and biosynthetic phases of photosynthesis; cyclic and non cyclic photophosphorylation; chemiosmotic hypothesis; photorespiration; C3 and C4 pathways; factors affecting photosynthesis
Chapter-14: Respiration in Plants
Exchange of gases; cellular respiration - glycolysis, fermentation (anaerobic), TCA cycle and electron transport system (aerobic); energy relations - number of ATP molecules generated; amphibolic pathways; respiratory quotient.
Chapter-15: Plant - Growth and Development
Seed germination; phases of plant growth and plant growth rate; conditions of growth; differentiation, dedifferentiation and redifferentiation; sequence of developmental processes in a plant cell; growth regulators - auxin, gibberellin, cytokinin, ethylene, ABA; seed dormancy; vernalisation; photoperiodism.


Human Physiology

Chapter-16: Digestion and Absorption
Alimentary canal and digestive glands, role of digestive enzymes and gastrointestinal hormones; Peristalsis, digestion, absorption and assimilation of proteins, carbohydrates and fats; calorific values of proteins, carbohydrates and fats; egestion; nutritional and digestive disorders - PEM, indigestion, constipation, vomiting, jaundice, diarrhoea.
Chapter-17: Breathing and Exchange of Gases
Respiratory organs in animals (recall only); Respiratory system in humans; Mechanism of breathing and its regulation in humans - exchange of gases, transport of gases and regulation of respiration, respiratory volume; disorders related to respiration - asthma, emphysema, occupational respiratory disorders
Chapter-18: Body Fluids and Circulation
Composition of blood, blood groups, coagulation of blood; Composition of lymph and its function; human circulatory system-Structure of human heart and blood vessels; cardiac cycle, cardiac output, ECG; double circulation; regulation of cardiac activity; disorders of circulatory system - hypertension, coronary artery disease, angina pectoris, heart failure.
Chapter-19: Excretory Products and Their Elimination
Modes of excretion - ammonotelism, ureotelism, uricotelism; human excretory system - structure and function; urine formation, osmoregulation; regulation of kidney function - renin-angiotensin, atrial natriuretic factor, ADH and diabetes insipidus; role of other organs in excretion; disorders - uraemia, renal failure, renal calculi, nephritis; dialysis and artificial kidney.
Chapter-20: Locomotion and Movement
Types of movement - ciliary, flagellar, muscular; skeletal muscle- contractile proteins and muscle contraction; skeletal system and its functions; joints; disorders of muscular and skeletal system - myasthenia gravis, tetany, muscular dystrophy, arthritis, osteoporosis, gout.
Chapter-21: Neural Control and Coordination
Neuron and nerves; Nervous system in humans - central nervous system; peripheral nervous system and visceral nervous system; generation and conduction of nerve impulse; reflex action; sensory perception; sense organs; elementary structure and functions of eye and ear.
Chapter-22: Chemical Coordination and Integration
Endocrine glands and hormones; human endocrine system - hypothalamus, pituitary, pineal, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pancreas, gonads; mechanism of hormone action (elementary idea); role of hormones as messengers and regulators, hypo - and hyperactivity and related disorders; dwarfism, acromegaly, cretinism, goiter, exophthalmic goiter, diabetes, Addison's disease.


The Living World

What Is ‘Living’?-Diversity In The Living World-Taxonomic Categories-Taxonomical Aids


Biological Classification

Kingdom Monera-Kingdom Protista-Kingdom Fungi-Kingdom Plantae-Kingdom Animalia-Viruses, Viroids And Lichens


Plant Kingdom

Algae-Bryophytes-Pteridophytes-Gymnosperms-Angiosperms-Plant Life Cycles And Alternation Of Generations


Animal Kingdom

Basis Of Classification-Classification Of Animals


Morphology of Flowering Plants

The Root-The Stem-The Leaf-The Inflorescence-The Flower-The Fruit-The Seed-Semi-Technical Description Of A Typical Flowering Plant-Description Of Some Important Families


Anatomy of Flowering Plants

The Tissues-The Tissue System-Anatomy Of Dicotyledonous And Monocotyledonous Plants-Secondary Growth


Cell: The Unit of Life

What Is A Cell?- Cell Theory-An Overview Of Cell-Prokaryotic Cells-Eukaryotic Cells


Structural Organisation in Animals

Animal Tissues-Organ and Organ System-Earthworm-Cockroach-Frogs



How to Analyse Chemical Composition?-Primary and Secondary Metabolites-Biomacromolecules-Proteins-Polysaccharides-Nucleic Acids-Structure of Proteins-Nature of Bond Linking Monomers in a Polymer-Dynamic State of Body Constituents - Concept of Metabolism-Metabolic Basis for Living-The Living State-Enzymes


Cell Cycle and Cell Division

Cell Cycle-M Phase-Significance Of Mitosis-Meiosis-Significance Of Meiosis


Transport in Plants

Means of Transport-Plant-Water Relations-Long Distance Transport of Water-Transpiration-Uptake and Transport of Mineral Nutrients-Phloem Transport: Flow From Source to Sink


Mineral Nutrition

Methods to Study The Mineral Requirements of Plants-Essential Mineral Elements-Mechanism of Absorption of Elements-Translocation of Solutes-Soil As Reservoir of Essential Elements-Metabolism of Nitrogen


Photosynthesis In Higher Plants

What do we Know?-Early Experiments-Where does Photosynthesis is Take Place?-How Many Pigments are Involved in Photosynthesis?-What is Light Reaction?-The Electron Transport-Where are the ATP and NADPH used?-The C4 Pathway-Photorespiration-Factors Affecting Photosynthesis


Respiration in Plants

Do Plants Breathe?-Glycolysis-Fermentation-Aerobic Respiration-The Respiratory Balance Sheet-Amphibolic Pathway-Respiratory Quotient


Plant Growth and Development

Growth-Differentiation, Dedifferentiation And Redifferentiation-Development-Plant Growth Regulators-Photo Periodism-Vernalisation


Digestion and Absorption

Digestive System-Digestion of Food-Absorption of Digested Products-Disorders of Digestive System


Breathing and Exchange of Gases

Respiratory Organs-Mechanism of Breathing-Exchange of Gases-Transport of Gases-Regulation of Respiration-Disorders of Respiratory System


Body Fluids and Circulation

Blood-Lymph (Tissue Fluid)-Circulatory Pathways-Double Circulation-Regulation of Cardiac Activity-Disorders of Circulatory System


Excretory Products and their Elimination

Human Excretory System-Urine Formation-Function of the Tubules-Mechanism of Concentration of The Filtrate-Regulation of Kidney Function-Maturation-Role of Other Organs in Excretion-Disorders of The Excretory System


Locomotion and Movement

Types Of Movement-Muscle-Skeletal System-Joints-Disorders Of Muscular And Skeletal System


Neural Control and Coordination

Neural System-Human Neural System-Neuron As Structural And Functional Unit Of Neural System-Central Neural System-Reflex Action And Reflex Arc-Sensory Reception And Processing


Chemical Control And Coordination

Endocrine Glands And Hormones-Human Endocrine System-Hormones Of Heart, Kidney And Gastro Intestinal Tract-Mechanism Of Hormone Action



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