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General Introduction: Importance and scope of chemistry - Nature of matter, laws of chemical combination, Dalton's atomic theory: concept of elements, atoms and molecules - Atomic and molecular masses, mole concept and molar mass, percentage composition, empirical and molecular formula, chemical reactions, stoichiometry and calculations based on stoichiometry.
Discovery of Electron, Proton and Neutron, atomic number, isotopes and isobars. Thomson's model and its limitations. Rutherford's model and its limitations, Bohr's model and its limitations, concept of shells and subshells, dual nature of matter and light, de Broglie's relationship, Heisenberg uncertainty principle, concept of orbitals, quantum numbers, shapes of s, p and d orbitals, rules for filling electrons in orbitals - Aufbau principle, Pauli's exclusion principle and Hund's rule, electronic configuration of atoms, stability of half filled and completely filled orbitals.
Significance of classification, brief history of the development of periodic table, modern periodic law and the present form of periodic table, periodic trends in properties of elements -atomic radii, ionic radii, inert gas radii, Ionization enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy, electronegativity, valency. Nomenclature of elements with atomic number greater than 100.
Valence electrons, ionic bond, covalent bond, bond parameters, Lewis structure, polar character of covalent bond, covalent character of ionic bond, valence bond theory, resonance, geometry of covalent molecules, VSEPR theory, concept of hybridization, involving s,p and d orbitals and shapes of some simple molecules, molecular orbital theory of homonuclear diatomic molecules(qualitative idea only), hydrogen bond.
Three states of matter, intermolecular interactions, types of bonding, melting and boiling points, role of gas laws in elucidating the concept of the molecule, Boyle's law, Charles law, Gay Lussac's law, Avogadro's law, ideal behaviour, empirical derivation of gas equation, Avogadro's number, ideal gas equation. Deviation from ideal behaviour, liquefaction of gases, critical temperature, kinetic energy and molecular speeds (elementary idea), Liquid State- vapour pressure, viscosity and surface tension (qualitative idea only, no mathematical derivations).
Concepts of System and types of systems, surroundings, work, heat, energy, extensive and intensive properties, state functions. First law of thermodynamics -internal energy and enthalpy, heat capacity and specific heat, H, Hess's law of constant heat summation, enthalpy of bond \(\triangle\)U and \(\triangle\)measurement of dissociation, combustion, formation, atomization, sublimation, phase transition, ionization, solution and dilution. Second law of Thermodynamics (brief introduction) - Introduction of entropy as a state function, Gibb's energy change for spontaneous and nonspontaneous processes, criteria for equilibrium. Third law of thermodynamics (brief introduction).
Equilibrium in physical and chemical processes, dynamic nature of equilibrium, law of mass action, equilibrium constant, factors affecting equilibrium-Le Chatelier's principle, ionic equilibrium- ionization of acids and bases, strong and weak electrolytes, degree of ionization, ionization of poly basic acids, acid strength, concept of pH, Henderson Equation, hydrolysis of salts (elementary idea), buffer solution, solubility product, common ion effect (with illustrative examples).
Concept of oxidation and reduction, redox reactions, oxidation number, balancing redox reactions, in terms of loss and gain of electrons and change in oxidation number, applications of redox reactions.
Position of hydrogen in periodic table, occurrence, isotopes, preparation, properties and uses of hydrogen, hydrides-ionic covalent and interstitial; physical and chemical properties of water, heavy water, hydrogen peroxide-preparation, reactions and structure and use; hydrogen as a fuel.
Group 1 and Group 2 Elements
General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, anomalous properties of the first element of each group, diagonal relationship, trends in the variation of properties (such as ionization enthalpy, atomic and ionic radii), trends in chemical reactivity with oxygen, water, hydrogen and halogens, uses.
Preparation and Properties of Some Important Compounds:
Sodium Carbonate, Sodium Chloride, Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium Hydrogencarbonate, Biological importance of Sodium and Potassium - Calcium Oxide and Calcium Carbonate and their industrial uses, biological importance of Magnesium and Calcium.
General Introduction to p -Block Elements
Group 13 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, variation of properties, oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous properties of first element of the group, Boron - physical and chemical properties, some important compounds, Borax, Boric acid, Boron Hydrides, Aluminium: Reactions with acids and alkalies, uses.
Group 14 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, variation of properties, oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous behaviour of first elements. Carbon-catenation, allotropic forms, physical and chemical properties; uses of some important compounds: oxides. Important compounds of Silicon and a few uses: Silicon Tetrachloride, Silicones, Silicates and Zeolites, their uses.
General introduction, methods of purification, qualitative and quantitative analysis, classification and IUPAC nomenclature of organic compounds. Electronic displacements in a covalent bond: inductive effect, electromeric effect, resonance and hyper conjugation. Homolytic and heterolytic fission of a covalent bond: free radicals, carbocations, carbanions, electrophiles and nucleophiles, types of organic reactions.
Classification of Hydrocarbons
Alkenes - Nomenclature, isomerism, conformation (ethane only), physical properties, chemical reactions including free radical mechanism of halogenation, combustion and pyrolysis.
Alkenes - Nomenclature, structure of double bond (ethene), geometrical isomerism, physical properties, methods of preparation, chemical reactions: addition of hydrogen, halogen, water, hydrogen halides (Markownikov's addition and peroxide effect), ozonolysis, oxidation, mechanism of electrophilic addition.
Alkynes - Nomenclature, structure of triple bond (ethyne), physical properties, methods of preparation, chemical reactions: acidic character of alkynes, addition reaction of - hydrogen, halogens, hydrogen halides and water.
Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Introduction, IUPAC nomenclature, benzene: resonance, aromaticity, chemical properties: mechanism of electrophilic substitution. Nitration, sulphonation, halogenation, Friedel Craft's alkylation and acylation, directive influence of functional group in monosubstituted benzene. Carcinogenicity and toxicity.
Environmental pollution - air, water and soil pollution, chemical reactions in atmosphere, smog, major atmospheric pollutants, acid rain, ozone and its reactions, effects of depletion of ozone layer, greenhouse effect and global warming- pollution due to industrial wastes, green chemistry as an alternative tool for reducing pollution, strategies for control of environmental pollution.
Importance of Chemistry-Nature of Matter-Properties of Matter and their Measurement-Uncertainty in Measurement-Laws of Chemical Combinations-Dalton’s Atomic Theory-Atomic and Molecular Masses-Mole Concept and Molar Masses-Percentage Composition-Stoichiometry and Stoichiometric Calculations
Discovery of Sub-atomic Particles-Atomic Models-Developments Leading to the Bohr’s Model of Atom-Bohr’s Model for Hydrogen Atom-Towards Quantum Mechanical Model of the Atom-Quantum Mechanical Model of Atom
Why do we Need to Classify Elements ?-Genesis of Periodic Classification-Modern Periodic Law and the present form of the Periodic Table-Nomenclature of Elements with Atomic Numbers > 100-Electronic Configurations of Elements and the Periodic Table-Electronic Configurations and Types of Elements: s-, p-, d-, f-Blocks-Periodic Trends in Properties of Elements
Kossel-Lewis Approach to Chemical Bonding-Ionic or Electrovalent Bond-Bond Parameters-The Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) Theory-Valence Bond Theory-Hybridisation-Molecular Orbital Theory-Bonding in Some Homonuclear Diatomic Molecules-Hydrogen Bonding
Intermolecular Forces-Thermal Energy-Intermolecular Forces vs Thermal Interactions-The Gaseous State-The Gas Laws-Ideal Gas Equation-Kinetic Energy and Molecular Speeds-Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases-Behaviour of Real Gases: Deviation from Ideal Gas Behaviour-Liquefaction of Gases-Liquid State
Thermodynamic Terms-Applications-Measurement of ?U and ?H: Calorimetry-Enthalpy Change, ?rH of a Reaction – Reaction Enthalpy-Enthalpies for Different Types of Reactions-Spontaneity-Gibbs Energy Change and Equilibrium
Equilibrium in Physical Processes-Equilibrium in Chemical Processes – Dynamic Equilibrium-Law of Chemical Equilibrium and Equilibrium Constant-Homogeneous Equilibria-Heterogeneous Equilibria-Applications of Equilibrium Constants-Relationship between Equilibrium Constant K, Reaction Quotient Q and Gibbs Energy G-Factors Affecting Equilibria-Ionic Equilibrium in Solution-Acids, Bases and Salts-Ionization of Acids and Bases-Buffer Solutions-Solubility Equilibria of Sparingly Soluble Salts
Classical Idea of Redox Reactions-Oxidation and Reduction Reactions-Redox Reactions in Terms of Electron Transfer Reactions-Oxidation Number-Redox Reactions and Electrode Processes
Position of Hydrogen in the Periodic Table-Dihydrogen, H2-Preparation of Dihydrogen, H2-Properties of Dihydrogen-Hydrides-Water-Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2)-Heavy Water, D2O-Dihydrogen as a Fuel
Group 1 Elements: Alkali Metals-General Characteristics of the Compounds of the Alkali Metals-Anomalous Properties of Lithium-Some Important Compounds of Sodium-Biological Importance of Sodium and Potassium-Group 2 Elements : Alkaline Earth Metals-General Characteristics of Compounds of the Alkaline Earth Metals-Anomalous Behaviour of Beryllium-Some Important Compounds of Calcium-Biological Importance of Magnesium and Calcium
Group 13 Elements: The Boron Family-Important Trends and Anomalous Properties of Boron-Some Important Compounds of Boron-Uses of Boron and Aluminium and their Compounds-Group 14 Elements: The Carbon Family-Important Trends and Anomalous Behaviour of Carbon-Allotropes of Carbon-Some Important Compounds of Carbon and Silicon
General Introduction-Tetravalence of Carbon: Shapes of Organic Compounds-Structural Representations of Organic Compounds-Classification of Organic Compounds-Nomenclature of Organic Compounds-Isomerism-Fundamental Concepts in Organic Reaction Mechanism-Methods of Purification of Organic Compounds-Qualitative Analysis of Organic Compounds-Quantitative Analysis
Classification-Alkanes-Alkenes-Alkynes-Aromatic Hydrocarbon-Carcinogenicity and Toxicity