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(a) The time frame under study (b) The geographical framework (c) Sources.
(a) Hunting and gathering as a way of life, its implications. (b) Introduction to stone tools and their use. (c) Case study: the Deccan.
(a) Implications of farming and herding. (b) Archaeological evidence for crops, animals, houses, tools, pottery, burials, etc. (c) Case study: the North-West, and North-East.
UNIT 1: Diversity
Diversity as a fact of being human - What diversity adds to our lives - Diversity in India.
Prejudice and discrimination - Inequality and discrimination - Recognition of multiple identities in oneself - The Constitution and respect for diversity
UNIT 2: Government
The need for government. Decision - making and participation- The quest for universal adult franchise through examples of the sufferagate movement and the antiapartheid struggle - Various forms of government and absence of collective sanction.
Participation and accountability - Resolution of Conflict - Concerns for Equality and Justice.
UNIT 3: Local Government
Panchayati Raj - Description of panchayat including electoral process, decision making, implementation of decisions - Role of a gram sabha - Women and the panchayat
Urban Local Government - Municipal corporation elections, decision making structures - The provision of water and the work of the municipal corporation - Citizens protests to get their grievances addressed
Rural Administration -Focus on a land dispute and show the role of local police and patwari. - On land records and role of patwari.- On the new inheritance law.
UNIT 4: Making a Living
Rural Livelihoods -Various types of livelihoods prevalent in a village.- Different types of farmers: middle farmer, landless labourers and large farmers.
Urban Livelihoods -Difference between primary, secondary and tertiary occupations.- Descriptions of various types of lievelihoods including vegetable vendor, domestic servant, garment worker and bank employee. - Differences between self-employed, regular employment and wage employment. - The interlinkage between rural and urban lives through a discussion of migration.
(a) The settlement pattern of the Harappan civilisation. (b) Unique architectural features. (c) Craft production. (d) The meaning of urbanism. (e) Case study: the North-West.
(a) The Vedas and what they tell us. (b) A contemporary chalcolithic settlement. (c) Case studies: the North-West and the Deccan.
(a) Janapadas to Mahajanapadas (b) Case study: Bihar, Magadha and the Vajji confederacy.
(a) The expansion of the empire. (b) Asoka (c) Administration.
Planet: Earth in the solar system.
Globe: the model of the earth, latitudes and longitudes; motions of the earth rotation and revolution.
Maps: essential components of maps distance, directions and symbols.
Four realms of the earth: lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere and biosphere: continents and oceans.
Major relief features of the earth
India in the world: physiographic divisions of India – mountains, plateaus and plains; climate; natural vegetation and wild life; need for their conservation.
(a) The second urbanisation. - (b) Agricultural intensification. - (c) Case study: Tamil Nadu.
(a) The Sangam texts and long distance exchange. Suggested regions: the Tamil region, extending to south east Asia and the west. (b) Conquerors from distant lands: north western and western India. (c) The spread of Buddhism: north India to Central Asia.
(a) Gupta empire and Harshavardhana. (b) Pallavas and Chalukyas.
(a) Literature, including the Puranas, the epics, other Sanskrit and Tamil works. (b) Architecture including early monasteries and temples, sculpture, painting (Ajanta); (c) Science.
The earliest people: why were they on the move-How do we know about these people-Choosing a place to live in-Making stone tools-Finding out about fire-A changing environment-Rock paintings and what they tell us-Who did what-A closer look-Hunsgi
What can we know about the past-Where did people live-Names of the land-Finding out about the past-One past or many-What do dates mean
Varieties of foods-The beginnings of farming and herding-A new way of life-‘ Storing’ animals-Finding out about the first farmers and herders-Towards a settled life-What about other customs and practices-A closer look: Living and dying in Mehrgarh-A closer look: Daojali Hading
The story of Harappa-What was special about these cities-Houses, drains and streets-Life in the city-New crafts in the city-In search of raw materials-Food for people in the cities-A closer look: Harappan towns in Gujarat-The mystery of the end
One of the oldest books in the world-How historians study the Rigveda-Cattle, horses and chariots-Words to describe people-Silent sentinels: the story of the megaliths-Finding out about social differences-Were some burial spots meant for certain families-A special burial at Inamgaon-Occupations at Inamgaon
How some men became rulers-Janapadas-Mahajanapadas-Taxes-Changes in agriculture-A closer look: Magadha-A closer look: Vajji
The story of the Buddha-Upanishads-Jainism-The sangha-Monasteries
A very big kingdom=an empire-How are empires different from kingdoms?-Ruling the empire-Ashoka, a unique ruler-Ashoka’s war in Kalinga-What was Ashoka’s dhamma
Iron tools and agriculture-Other steps to increase production: irrigation-Who lived in the villages-Finding out about cities: stories, travellers, sculpture and archaeology-Coins-Cities with many functions-Crafts and crafts persons-A closer look: Arikamedu
How to find out about trade and traders-New kingdoms along the coasts-The story of the Silk Route-The spread of Buddhism-The quest of the pilgrims-The beginning of Bhakti
Prashastis and what they tell us-Samudragupta’s prashasti-Genealogies-Harshavardhana and the Harshacharita-The Pallavas, Chalukyas and Pulakeshin’s prashasti-How were these kingdoms administered-A new kind of army-Assemblies in the southern kingdoms-Ordinary people in the kingdoms
The iron pillar-Buildings in brick and stone-How were stupas and temples built-Painting-The world of books-Recording and preserving old stories-Stories told by ordinary people-Writing books on science
Important Parallels of Latitudes-Heat Zones of the Earth-What are Longitudes-Longitude and Time-Why do We Have Standard Time
Physical Maps-Political Maps-Thematic Maps-Distance-Direction-Symbols-Sketch-Plan
Lithosphere-Hydrosphere-Atmosphere-Biosphere: The Domain of Life
Mountains-Plateaus-Plains-Landforms and the People
Locational Setting-Political and Administrative Divisions-Physical Divisions
Cold Weather Season Or Winter-Hot Weather Season Or Summer-South West Monsoon Season Or Rainy Season-Season Of Retreating Monsoons Or Autumn-Natural Vegetation-Tropical Rain Forest-Tropical Deciduous Forests-Thorny Bushes-Mountain Vegetation-Mangrove Forests-Why Are Forests Necessary-Wild Life
Making Friends-What Does Diversity Add To Our Lives-Diversity In India-How Do We Explain Diversity-Unity In Diversity
Difference and Prejudice-Creating Stereotypes-Inequality and Discrimination-On being discriminated against-Striving for Equality
Levels of Government-Laws and the Government-Types of Government-Democratic Governments
Participation-Other Ways of Participating-Need To Resolve Conflict-Equality and Justice
A Quarrel in the Village-Area of the Police Station-Maintenance of Land Records-A New Law
The Ward Councillor and Administrative Staff-A Community Protest
Kalpattu village-Sekar-On being in Debt-Ramalingam and Karuthamma-Agricultural Labourers and Farmers in India-Rural Livelihoods