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Where, When, How - (a) An overview of the period. (b) Introduction to the new geographical categories. (c) An outline of the time frame. (d) An introduction to the sources.
The Establishment of Company Power- (a) Mercantilism and trade-wars. (b) Struggle for territory, wars with Indian rulers. (c) The growth of colonial army and civilian administration.
Rural Life and Society - (a) Colonial agrarian policies; their effect on peasants and landlords. (b) Growth of commercial crops. (c) Peasant revolts: focus on indigo rebellions.
Colonialism and Tribal Societies - (a) Changes within tribal economies and societies in the nineteenth century. (b) Tribal revolts: focus on Birsa Munda.
Crafts and Industries - (a) Decline of handicrafts in the nineteenth century. (b) Brief reference to growth of industries in the twentieth century
The Revolt of 1857-58 - (a) The rebellion in the army and the spread of the movement. (b) The nature of elite and peasant participation
Education and British rule - (a) The new education system – schools, syllabi, colleges, universities, technical training. (b) Changes in the indigenous systems. (c) Growth of ‘National education’.
Women and reform - (a) Debates around sati, widow remarriage, child marriage and age of consent. (b) Ideas of different reformers on the position of women and women’s education.
Challenging the Caste System - (a) Arguments for caste reform. The ideas of Phule, Veerasalingam, Sri Narayana Guru, Periyar, Gandhi, Ambedkar. (b) Consequences and implications of the activities of the reformers.
Colonialism and Urban Change - (a) De-urbanisation and emergence of new towns. (b) Implications of colonial policies and institutions – municipalities, public works, planning, railway links, police.
Changes in the Arts: Painting, Literature, architecture - (a) Impact of new technologies and institutions: art schools, printing press. (b) Western academic style and nationalist art. (c) Changes in performing arts – music and dance enter the public arena. (d) New forms of writing. (e) New architecture.
The Nationalist Movement - (a) Overview of the nationalist movement from the 1870s to the 1940s. (b) Diverse trends within the movement and different social groups involved. (c) Links with constitutional changes.
India after Independence - (a) National and regional developments since 1947. (b) Relations with other countries. (c) Looking to the future.
Resources - Resources: resources and their types – natural and human. Land, Soil, Water, Natural Vegetation and Wildlife Resources
Natural resources: their distribution, utilisation and conservation, land and soil, water, natural vegetation, wildlife, mineral and power resources (world patterns with special reference to India).
Mineral & Power Resources - Agriculture - Agriculture: types of farming, major crops, food crops, fibres, beverages, agricultural development – two case studies – one from India and the other from a developed country/a farm in the US/ Netherlands/ Australia.
Industries - Industries: classification of industries based on size, raw material, ownership; major industries and distribution; infrastructure and development. Iron and Steel (a comparative study of Jamshedpur and a centre in USA e.g., Detroit). Textile Industry (Ahmedabad and Osaka). Information Technology (Bangalore and Silicon Valley).
Human Resources - Human Resources – composition, population change, distribution and density.
The Indian Constitution - On need for laws discussed through an example like dowry, Role of Constitution in determining the authority/legitimacy of the law, Laws and Dissent: Salt Satyagraha and a post-1947 example such as anti-liquor agitation. Vision set forth in the Indian Constitution with a focus on secularism. - On how an ideal of the Constitution translates into a law - On how ideals of secularism got translated into fundamental rights. - On Fundamental rights as human rights. - On Fundamental Duties.
UNIT 2: Parliamentary Government - Reasons why parliamentary form chosen in India. -Main features of composition of parliament and its role in debating a bill - Accountability of the government to the parliament - Role of President, PM and the Council of Ministers. Translation of felt need into law and the critical features of the legislation. - Implication of law.
UNIT 3: The Judiciary - The structure and process followed by the judiciary: Trace a case from lower to higher courts - Distinguish between civil and criminal cases - Indicate the rationale of the process Role of the Public Prosecutor - On an FIR: filing one, on the illegality of the police not accepting an FIR and the Supreme Court’s directive on this.
UNIT 4: Social Justice and the Marginalized
Forms of social inequality - Constitutional provisions relating to social justice - Effect of social inequalities on economic inequalities - On Reservations. The law on manual scavenging with reference to existing realities in rural and urban areas.
UNIT 5: Economic Presence of the Government
Introduction of various ways by which government is engaged in developmental activities, especially in infrastructure and social sectors.
East India Company Comes East-Company Rule Expands-Setting up a New Administration-Conclusion
The Company Becomes the Diwan-Crops for Europe-The Blue Rebellion and After
How did Tribal Groups Live-How did Colonial Rule Affect Tribal Lives-A Closer Look
Policies and the People-Through the Eyes of the People-A Mutiny Becomes a Popular Rebellion-The Company Fights Back-Aftermath
What Happened to Cities Under Colonial Rule-The Making of New Delhi-Inside the Old City
Indian Textiles and the World Market-The sword of Tipu Sultan and Wootz steel
How the British saw Education- What Happened to the Local Schools- The Agenda for a National Education
New Forms of Imperial Art-What Happened to the Court Artisrts-The New Popular Indian Art-The Search for a National Art
The Emergence of Nationalism- The Growth of Mass Nationalism- The March to Dandi- Quit India and Later
A New and Divided Nation-A Constitution is Written-How were States to be Formed-Planning for Development-The Nation, Sixty Years On
Land- Land Use- Conservation Of Land Resource- Soil- Factors Of Soil Formation- Degradation Of Soil And Conservation Measures- Water- Problems Of Water Availability- Conservation Of Water Resources- Natural Vegetation And Wildlife-Distribution Of Natural Vegetation- Conservation Of Natural Vegetation And Wildlife
Types Of Minerals- Distribution Of Minerals- Europe- North America- South America- Africa- Australia- Antarctica- Distribution In India- Uses Of Minerals- Conservation Of Minerals- Power Resources- Non-Conventional Sources Of Energy- Tidal Energy- Biogas
Classification Of Industries- Factors Affecting Location Of Industries- Industrial System- Industrial Regions- Distribution Of Major Industries- Tata Iron And Steel Company, Jamshedpur- Cotton Textile Industry- Information Technology
Distribution Of Population- Density Of Population- Factors Affecting Distribution Of Population- Population Change- Patterns Of Population Change- Population Composition
Why Does a Country Need a Constitution- The Indian Constitution: Key Features
What is Secularism- Why is it Important to Separate Religion from the State- What is Indian Secularism
Why should People Decide- People and their Representatives- The Role of the Parliament- Who are the People in Parliament
Do Laws Apply to All- How Do New Laws Come About- Unpopular and Controversial Laws
What is the Role of the Judiciary- What is an Independent Judiciary- What is the Structure of Courts in India- What are the Different Branches of the Legal System- Does Everyone Have Access to the Courts
What is the Role of the Police in Investigating a Crime- What is the Role of the Public Prosecutor- What is the Role of the Judge- What is a Fair Trial
What Does it Mean to be Socially Marginalised- Who are Adivasis- Adivasis and Stereotyping- Adivasis and Development- Minorities and Marginalisation- Muslims and Marginalisation- Conclusion
Invoking Fundamental Rights- Laws for the Marginalised- Protecting the Rights of Dalits and Adivasis- Adivasi Demands and the 1989 Act- Conclusion
Water and the People of Chennai- Water as Part of the Fundamental Right to Life- Public Facilities- The Government’s Role- Water Supply to Chennai: Is it Available to All- In Search of Alternatives- Conclusion