PPMET 2019 Chemistry Syllabus
Punjab Para Medical Entrance Test ( PPMET ) for Nursing Entrance Examination Chemistry Syllabus – 2015 :
For Nursing Courses
Unit-I Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry
General introduction: Importance and scope of chemistry. Historical approach to particulate nature of matter, laws of chemical combination. Dalton's atomic theory: concept of elements, atoms and molecules. Atomic and molecular masses. Mole concept and molar mass: percentage composition, empirical and molecular formula; chemical reactions, stoichiometry and calculations based on stoichiometry.
Unit-II Structure of Atom
Discovery of electron, proton and neutron; atomic number, isotopes and isobars. Thomson's model and its limitations, Rutherford's model and its limitations. Bohr's model and its limitations, concept of shells and subshells, dual nature of matter and light, De Broglie's relationship, Heisenberg uncertainty principle, concept of orbitals, quantum numbers, shapes of s, p, and d orbitals, rules for filling electrons in orbitals - Aufbau principle, Pauli exclusion principle and Hund's rule, electronic configuration of atoms, stability of half filled and completely filled orbitals.
Unit-III Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties
Significance of classification, brief history of the development of periodic table, modern periodic law and the present form of periodic table, periodic trends in properties of elements -atomic radii, ionic radii, Inert gas radii. Lionization enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy, electronegativity, valence, Nomenclature of elements with atomic number greater than 100.
Unit-IV Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure
Valence electrons, ionic bond, bond parameters, covalent bond. Lewis structure, polar character of covalent bond, covalent character of ionic bond, valence bond theory. resonance, geometry of covalent molecules, VSEPR theory, concept of hybridization involving s, p and d orbitals and shapes of some simple molecules, Molecular orbital theory of homo nuclear diatomic molecules(qualitative idea only), hydrogen bond.
Unit-V States of Matter: Gases and Liquids
Three states of matter. Intermolecular interactions, types of bonding, melting and boiling points. Role of gas laws in elucidating the concept of the molecule, Boyle’s law. Charles' law, Gay Lussac's law, Avogadro's law. Ideal behaviour, empirical derivation of gas equation, Avogadro's number. Ideal gas equation. Derivation from ideal behaviour, liquifaction of gases, critical temperature, kinetic energy and molecular speeds (elementary idea) derivation from ideal behaviour, liquification of gasses, critical temperature Liquid State - Vapour pressure, viscosity and surface tension (qualitative idea only, no mathematical derivations).
Unit-VI: Solid State
Classification of solids based on different binding forces: molecular, ionic, covalent and metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea), unit cell in two dimensional and three dimensional lattices, calculation of density of unit cell, packing in solids packing efficiency, voids, number of atoms per unit cell in a cubic unit cell, points defects, electrical and magnetic properties. Band theory of metals, conductors, semiconductors and insulators and n and p type semiconductors.
Unit VII: Solutions
Types of solutions, expression of concentration of solutions of solids in liquids, solubility of gases in liquids, solid solutions, colligative properties – relative lowering of vapour pressure, Raoults Law, elevation of B.P., depression of freezing point, osmotic pressure, determination of molecular masses using colligative properties, abnormal molecular mass. Vant Hoff factor.
Concepts of System, types of systems, surroundings. Work, heat, energy, extensive and intensive properties, state functions. First law of thermodynamics - internal energy and enthalpy heat capacity and specific heat measurement of cU and cH, Hess's law of constant heat summation, enthalpy of: bond dissociation, combustion, formation, atomization, sublimation. Phase transition, ionization, solution and dilution. Introduction of entropy as a state function, Gibbs energy change for spontaneous and non-spontaneous processes, criteria for equilibrium. Second law of thermodynamics, third law of thermodynamics (Brief introduction).
Equilibrium in physical and chemical processes, dynamic nature of equilibrium, law of mass action, equilibrium constant, factors affecting equilibrium - Le Chatelier's principle; ionic equilibrium ionization of acids and bases, strong and weak electrolytes, degree of ionization, ionization of polybasic acids, acid strength, concept of pH, Henderson Equation. Hydrolysis of salts (elementary idea). Buffer solutions, solubility product, common ion effect (with illustrative examples).
Unit X: Chemical Kinetics
Rate of a reaction (average and instantaneous), factors affecting rates of reaction; concentration, temperature, catalyst; order and molecularity of a reaction: rate law and specific rate constant, integrated rate equations and' half life (only for zero and first order reactions); concept of collision theory (elementary idea, no mathematical treatment). Activation Energy, Arrhenious equation.
Unit-XI Redox Reactions
Concept of oxidation and reduction, redox reactions, oxidation number, balancing redox reactions in terms of loss and gain of electrons and change in oxidation number, application of redox reaction.
Unit XII: Electrochemistry
Redox reactions; conductance in electrolytic solutions, specific and molar conductivity, variations of conductivity with concentration, Kohlrausch's Law, electrolysis and laws of electrolysis (elementary idea) dry cell-electrolytic cells and Galvanic cells; lead accumulator, EMF of a cell, standard electrode potential, Nernst equation and its application to chemical cells, fuel cells; corrosion. Relation between Gibbs Energy change and EMF of cell.
Unit XIII: Surface Chemistry
Absorption physiorption and chemisorption; factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids; catalysis; homogenous and heterogeneous, activity and selectivity; enzyme catalysis; colloidal state: distinction between true solutions, colloids and suspensions; lyophillic, lyophobic, multimolecular and macromolecular/colloids; properties of colloids; Tyndall effect, Brownian movement, electrophoresis, coagulation; emulsion-types of emulsions.
Unit XIV: General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements
Principles and methods of extraction – concentration, oxidation, reduction electrolytic method and refining; occurrence and principles of extraction of aluminum, copper, zinc and Iron.
Position of hydrogen in periodic table, occurrence, isotopes, preparation, properties and uses of hydrogen; hydrides - ionic, covalent and interstitial; physical and chemical properties of water, heavy water; hydrogen peroxidepreparation, reactions, structure and use; hydrogen as a fuel.
Unit-XVI S Block Elements (Alkali and Alkaline earth metals)
Group 1 and Group 2 elements General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, anomalous properties of the first element of each group, diagonal relationship, trends in the variation of properties (such as ionization enthalpy, atomic and ionic radii), trends in chemical reactivity with oxygen, water, hydrogen and halogens; uses. Preparation and properties of some important compounds: Sodium carbonate, sodium chloride sodium hydroxide and sodium hydrogen carbonate, biological importance of sodium and potassium. CaO, CaCO3 and industrial use of lime and limestone, biological importance of Mg and Ca.
Unit-XVII Some p-Block Elements, General introduction to p-Block
Elements Group 13 elements: General introduction, electronic configurations, occurrence. Variation of properties, oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous properties of first element of the group; Boron- physical and chemical properties, some important compounds: borax, boric acid, boron hydrides. Aluminium: reactions with acids and alkalies and uses. Group 14 elements: General introduction, electronic configurations, occurrence, variation of properties, oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous behaviour of first element, Carbon - catenation, allotropic forms, physical and chemical properties; uses of some important compounds: oxides. Important compounds of silicon and a few uses: silicon tetrachloride silicones, silicates and Zeolites, their uses.
Unit XVIII: p-Block Element
Group 15 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, oxidation states, trends in physical and chemical properties; nitrogen - preparation, properties and uses; compounds of nitrogen- preparation and properties of ammonia and nitric acids, oxides of nitrogen (structure only); Phosphorous-allotropic forms; compounds of phosphorous preparation and properties of phosphine, halides (PCl3,PCl5) and oxoacids (elementary idea only). Group16 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties; dioxygen; preparation, properties and uses; classification of oxides; Ozone. Sulphur – allotropic forms; compounds of sulphur preparation, properties and uses of sulphur dioxide, sulphuric acid, industrial process of manufacture, properties and uses, oxoacids of sulphur (structures only). Group 17 elements: (General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties; compounds of halogens; preparation, properties and uses of chlorine and hydrochloric acid, interhalogen compounds, oxoacids of halogens (structures only). Group 18 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration. Occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties, uses.
Unit-XIX: d and f Block Elements
General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence and characteristics of transition metals, general trends in properties of the first row transition metals-metallic character, ionization, enthalpy, oxidation states, ionic radii, colour, catalytic properties, magnetic properties, interstitial compounds, alloy formation. Preparation and properties of K2Cr2O7, and KMnO4. Lanthanoids - electronic configuration, oxidation states, chemical reactivity and lanthanoid contraction and consequences. Actenoids - Electronic configuration, oxidation states.
Unit-XX: Coordination Compounds
Coordination compounds - introduction, ligands, coordination number, colour, magnetic properties and shapes, IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds, bonding; Werner’s theory VBT, CFT, Isomerism (structure and stereo) importance of coordination compounds (in qualitative analysis, extraction of metals and biological systems).
Unit-XXI Organic Chemistry Some Basic Principles and Techniques
General introduction, methods of purification, qualitative and quantitative analysis, classification and IUPAC nomenclature of organic compounds. Electronic displacements in a covalent bond:- inductive effect, electromeric effect, resonance and hyper conjugation. Homolytic and heterolytic fission of a covalent bond: free radicals, carbocations, carboanion; electrophiles and nucleophiles, types of organic reactions
Classification of hydrocarbons Aliphatic Hydrocarbon Alkanes Nomenclature isomerism, conformations (ethane only), physical properties, chemical reactions including, free radical mechanism of halogenation, combustion and pyrolysis. Alkenes - Nomenclature, structure of double bond (ethene) geometrical isomerism, physical properties, methods of preparation; chemical reactions: addition of hydrogen, halogen, water, hydrogen halides (Markovnikov's addition and peroxide effect), ozonolysis, oxidation, mechanism of electrophilic addition. Alkynes – Nomenclature, structure of triple bond (ethyne), physical properties. Methods of preparation, chemical reactions: acidic character of alkynes, addition reaction of - hydrogen, halogens, hydrogen halides and water. Aromatic hydrocarbons: Introduction, IUPAC nomenclature: Benzene; resonance aromaticity: chemical properties: mechanism of electrophilic substitution. – nitration sulphonation, halogenation, Friedel Craft's alkylation and acylation: directive influence of functional group in mono-substituted benzene; carcinogenicity and toxicity.
Unit-XXIII: Haloalkanes and Haloarenes.
Haloalkanes: Nomenclature, nature of C-X bond, physical and chemical properties, mechanism of substitution reactions, optical rotation. Halearenes: Nature of C-X bond, substitution reactions (directive influence of halogen for monosubstituted compounds only) Uses and environmental effects of - dichloromethane, trichlromethane, tetrachloromethane, iodoform, freons, DDT.
Unit –XXIV: Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
Alcohols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties (of primary alcohols only); identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols; mechanism of dehydration, uses, with special reference to - methanol and ethanol. Phenols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, acidic nature of phenol, electrophilic substitution reactions, uses of phenols.Ethers: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses.
Unit-XXV: Aldehydes, Ketones aml Carboxylic Acids
Aldehydes and Ketones: Nomenclature, nature of carbonyl group, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, and mechanism of nucleophilic addition, reactivity of alpha hydrogen in aldehydes; uses. Carboxylic Acids: Nomenclature, acidic nature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties; uses.
Unit-XXVI: Organic compounds containing Nitrogen
Amines: Nomenclature, classification, structure, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses, identification of primary, secondary and tertiary amines. Cyanides and Isocyanides - will be mentioned at relevant places in context. Dizonium Salts: Preparation, chemical reactions and importance in synthetic organic chemistry.
Unit-XXVII: Bio molecules
Carbohydrates - Classification (aldoses and ketoses), monosaccaharides (glucose and fructose), oligosaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose), polysaccharides (starch, cellulose, glycogen); importance Proteins - Elementary idea of amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides proteins, primary structure, secondary structure, tertiary structure and quaternary structure (qualitative idea only), denaturation of proteins; enzymes.Vitamins: Classification and functions. Harmones: Elementary idea (excluding structure) Nucleic Acids: DNA & RNA .
Classification - natural and synthetic, methods of polymerization (addition and condensation), copolymerization. Some important polymers; natural and synthetic like polythene, nylon, polyesters, bakelite, rubber. Biodegradable and Non- Biodegradable Polymers.
Unit-XXIX: Chemistry in everyday life
1. Chemicals in medicines analgesic, transquilizers, antiseptics, disinfectants, antimicrobials, antifertility drugs, antibiotics, antacids, antihistamines.
2. Chemicals in food- preservatives, artificial sweetening agents. Elementary idea of antioxidents.
3. Cleansing agents - soaps and detergents, cleansing action.
Unit-XXX Environmental Chemistry
Environmental pollution - air, water and soil pollution, chemical reactions in atmosphere, smog, major atmospheric pollutants; acid rain, ozone and its reactions, effects of depletion of ozone layer; greenhouse effect and global warming - pollution due to industrial wastes: green chemistry as an alternative tool for reducing pollution, strategy for control of environmental pollution.
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