Punjab Ayush Entrance Test ( PAET ) Medical Entrance Examination

Guru Ravidas Ayurved University, Hoshiarpur, Punjab, India. GRAU is an inspirational idea of Sh. Tikshan Sud, Medical Education & Research Minister under the able guidance of Sr. Parkash Singh Badal, Hon'ble Chief Minister, Punjab to promote Ancient pathy of Ayurveda, Research and Medical Tourism in the field of Ayurveda, Yoga, Unani, Sidha and Homoeopathy. Guru Ravidas Ayurved University, Punjab invites applications for Punjab Ayush Entrance Test 2018 for admission to BAMS and BHMS courses in various Government and Private Colleges affiliated to Guru Ravidas Ayurved University Punjab shall be held on August 2018. All necessary information regarding the taking of PAET-2018, allocation of merit and seeking admission to BAMS / BHMS courses in the various Ayurvedic and Homoeopathic colleges of Punjab affiliated to Guru Ravidas Ayurved University Punjab and all applicable rules and regulations

PAET 2019 Biology Syllabus

Punjab Ayush Entrance Test ( PAET ) Medical Entrance Examination Biology Syllabus – 2018

For BAMS & BHMS Courses

BIOLOGY - BOTANY

Unit 1:

Structural organization of cell:- Light and electron microscope aspects of cell; cell organelles and their functions- nucleus, mitochondria, choroplast, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi complex, lysosomes, microtubules, ribosomes, cell wall, cilia, flagella, centriole, vacuoles & cell inclusions.

Unit 2:

Cell reproduction: Cell cycle, processes of mitosis and meiosis.

Unit 3:

Introduction to classification: The enormous variety of living things, the need for classification to cope with this variety; taxonomy and phylogeny; shortcomings of a two-kingdom classification- plants and animals, status of viruses and bacteriophage; the five-kingdom classification-Monera, Protisa, Fungi, Plantae and Animalia.

Unit 4 :

The basic features of classification: Concept of species, taxon and categories-hierarchical levels of classification, binomial nomenclature, principles of classification and nomenclature.

Unit 5:

Kingdom Monera:- Archaebacteria-life in extreme environments, General account of bacteria, actinomycetes & cyanobacteria. Examples to illustrate autotrophic and heterotrophic life styles. Economic importance of Monera- mineralizer, nitrogen fixer, in cycling materials, symbiotic forms, disease producers.

Unit 6:

Kingdom Protisa:- Eukaryotic unicellular organisms. Various life styles shown in the major phyia; sexual and asexual reproduction in protisa( brief outline only); flagella and cilia as locomotary organs of profisa, examples of common

Unit 7:

Kingdom Fungi:- Zygomycetes; Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes; Economic importance of fugi-decomposers & parasitic forms. Lichens and mycorrhizae.

Unit 8:

Kingdom plantae:- Complex autotrophs-red. brown and green algae ( chlamydomonas, spirogyra); conquest of land; bryophytes (Funaria), ferms (Dryopteris), gymnosperms (pinus) and angiosperms. Vascularization, development of flower, fruit and seed( in brief only).

Unit 9:

Morphology and anatomy of flowering plants:- Morphology and functions of root, stem, leaf and their modifications. Tissue systems in flowering plants-meristematic and permanent; Primary structure of dicot and monocot root and stem; secondary growth.

Unit10:

Reproduction and development in angiosperms:- Asexual reproduction and sexual reproduction. Structure and function of flower, inflorescence; development of male and female gametophytes; pollination; fertilization; development of endosperm, embryo, seed and fruit, seed dispersal,

Unit 11:

Water relations:- Water relations of plants cells, water potential, absorption and transport of water in plant; root pressure; ascent of sap, transpiration and stomatal mechanism.

Unit 12:

Plant nutrition:- a. Mineral nutrition: essential elements, major functions of different elements, passive and active uptake of minerals, deficiency symptoms. b. Photosynthesis; photochemical and biosynthetics phases, diversity in photosynthetic pathways, photosynthetic election transport, photophosphorylation & photorespriation. c. Special modes, of nutrition in plants.

Unit 13:

A general account of cellular respiration:- Fermentation, biological oxidation, glycolysis and Krebs cycle (graphic cycle only), mitochondrial electron transport chain, high energy bonds and oxidative phosphorylation.

Unit 14:

Plant growth and Plant movements:- Hormones and growth regulation, role of plant hormones in relation to seed dormancy, germination, apical dominance, senescence, and abscission. Agricultural uses of synthetic growth regulators. Brief account of phytochrome as photomorphogenetic pigment. Plant movements- a brief account.

Unit 15:

Heredity and Variation:- a. Mendel's experiments and idea of factors. b. Mendel's laws of inheritance. Chromosomes and Chromosomal basis of inheritance (in brief), some basic terms used in inheritance studies. c. Other patterns of inheritance-incomplete dominance, multiplegenes, linkage and crossing over, sex linked inheritance. Genetic variation- recombination, mutation, phenotypic expression in haploid organisms.

Unit 16:

DNA as genetic material, its replication, transcription and translation:- Evidence from bacterial transformation and viral infection. Structure and replication of DNA. Protein synthesis-Genetic code, Central Dogma, transcription, translation, Effects of mutations on protein synthesis.

Unit 17:

Gene expression:- In prokaryotes and eukaryotes, Genetic engineering.

Unit 18:

Species and population:- Origin and concept of species, population, interaction between environment and population.

Unit 19:

Biotic community:- Interaction between different species, biotic stability, change in the community; succession.

Unit 20:

Ecosystem: Interaction between biotic and abiotic components, major ecosystems, man made ecosystem-Agroecosystem.

Unit 21:

Biosphere:- , Flow of energy, biogeochemical cycles-calcium and sulphur, ecological imbalance and its consequences.

Unit 22:

Conservation of natural resources:- Renewable and non-renewable resources (in brief). Water and land management, wasteland development.

Unit 23:

Forest conservation:- Conservation of forest; Indian Forests, importance of forests, hazards of deforestation, afforestation,

Unit 24:

Environmental pollution:- Air and water pollution, sources, major pollutants of big cities of our country, their effects and methods of control; pollution due to radioactive substances, disposal of nuclear waste, effect and control of radiation pollution: Noise pollution-sources and effects.

Unit 25:

Application of Botany:- Biofertilisers-green manures, nitrogen fixation; symbiotic and nonsymbiotic.

BIOLOGY - ZOOLOGY

Unit 1:

Nature and scope of Biology:- Branches of Biology; its relation with other sciences; techniques and instruments, why to study Biology; serendipity and Scientific method.

Unit 2:

Being Alive :- What does it mean? Present approach to understand life process; molecular approach; life as an expression of energy: steady state and homeostatis; self duplication and survival; adaptation; death as a positive part of iife; and attempt to define life in the light of the above.

Unit 3:

Origin of life, evolution and its maintenance:- Origin of life, Oparin Haldane's theory miller-urey experiments. Evolution, the-living crust and interdependence, our place and our role, the positive and negative aspect of progress in biological sciences. The future of living world; Identification of human responsibility in shaping our future.

Unit 4:

Cell as a unit of life:- Cell as a basic unit; cell as a self-contained unit; Cell theory; Unicellular & multicellular organisms; flow of energy and information; compartmentalization for cellular life; structure of eukaryotic cells and its difference from prokaryotic cells.

Unit 5:

Small molecules of the cell:- Cellular pool: Chemistry, cellular location and functional significance of mono and oligosaccharides; lipids; amino acids; nucleotides; water & minerals.

Unit 6:

Macromolecules in cells:- Chemistry, cellular location and functional significance of polysaccharides, proteins and nucleic acids,

Unit 7:

Enzymes:- Chemical nature, classification, properties, mechanism of action-enzyme substrate complex, inhibition, ailosteric modulation(in brief).

Unit 8 :

Bio- membranes:- Unit membrane concept, fluid mosaic, model, membrane transport, exocytosis and endocytosis- membranes and cellular movement.

Unit 9:

Kingdom Animalia:- Animal body pattern and symmetry; Body cavity in invertebrate and vertebrate phyla. Salient feature with reference to habitat and examples of phvlaporifera, Coelenterata, helminthes, annelids, Mollusca, Arthropoda, echinoderms; Chordata-(classes-fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals) highlighting major characters (Morphological notes on examples of different phyla of animals are not required).

Unit 10:

Wild life:- Causes for extinction of some wild life, steps taken to conserve the remaining species, concept of endangered species-Indian examples.

Unit 11:

Animal tissues:- Epithelial , connective, muscular, nervous.

Unit 12:

Animal nutrition:- Digestive system of prawn, digestive system of man; digestive processes in man: absorption and egestion.

Unit 13:

Gas exchange and transport-Pulmonary gas exchange in humans and organs involved; transport of gases in blood; Gas exchange in aqueous medium (as in bony fish).

Unit 14:

Circulation of body fluids:- Closed (human) and open(prawn) blood vascular systems.structure and pumping action of heart, pulmonary and systemic circulation. Heart rate and pulse, blood pressure. Autorhythmicity of heart beat; lymph.

Unit 15:

Excretion and Osmoregulation:- Amontelism, Urecotelism, Urecotelism; Excretory organs in man, composition and formation of urine. Role of kidney in osmoregulation, brief account of counter current system(details not required), role of ADH, role of skin and lungs in excretion.

Unit 16:

Movements and Locomotion- Study of human skeleton, joints, red and white muscles in movement, mechanism of musle contraction.

Unit 17:

Nervous coordination and Receptors:- Components of human nervous system- central nervous system, peripheral nervous system, autonomic nervious system, Structure and function of brain and spinal cord. Transmission of nerve impulse, reflex action. Basic structure and functions of sense organs.

Unit 18:

Hormonal Coordination:- Endocrine organs in humans, hormones and their function, diseases caused by hormonal imbalance, roles of hormones as messengers and regulators hypothalamo hyphysial-axis, feedback, control.

Unit 19:

Animal reproduction and development-Asexual and sexual reproduction; reproductive organs of human male and female; gametogenesis and differentiation of gametes; reproductive cycle in the human female: chemical and physical features of fertilization. Development of zygote upto three germinal layers, fate of germ layers.

Unit 20:

Growth, Repair; regeneration; ageing and death:- Growth-cell growth rates and hormonal control of growth in humans. Repairs and regeneration: principal types of regeneration and mechanism of regeneration. Ageing: morphological, physiological, cellular and extracellular changes, theories of ageing, biological meaning of death.

Unit 21:

Organic Evaluation: Inter-relationship among living organisms. Evidences for evolution-fossil evidence and geological time scale; morphological evidence-homologous, analogous and vestigal organs. Embryological evidence-similarities among embryos different vertebrate classes; evidence from biogeography

Unit 22:

Darwin's major contributions-Variation & Natural selection:- a. Common ancestry. b. Natural selection as mechanism of evolution, Elementary forces of evolution.

Unit 23:

Variation:- Mutation and recombination as sources of variability; role of selection; genetic basis of adaptation-Lederberg's replica plating experiments; speciation. Isolation—geographical and reproductive.

Unit 24:

Common Human Diseases:- a. Communicable diseases—viral, bacterial, protozoan diseases includingp STD and diseases spread through blood transfusion such as AIDS and hepatitis. b. Immune responses—vaccines and antisero. allergies and inflammations. c. Non Communicable diseases—inherited diseases and sexlinked diseases; genetic incompatibility and genetic counseling. Cancer-major types, causes, diagnosis and treatment. Tissues and organ transplantation.

Unit 25:

Human population growth: Problems and control; inequality of sexes: test tuble babies, & amniocentesis.

For More Details Visit this websites :

http://www.grauadmission.com/prospectus/PROSPECTUS_PAET_2015.pdf

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