PAET 2019 Biology Syllabus
Punjab Ayush Entrance Test ( PAET ) Medical Entrance Examination Biology Syllabus – 2018
For BAMS & BHMS Courses
BIOLOGY - BOTANY
Structural organization of cell:- Light and electron microscope aspects of cell; cell organelles and their functions- nucleus, mitochondria, choroplast, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi complex, lysosomes, microtubules, ribosomes, cell wall, cilia, flagella, centriole, vacuoles & cell inclusions.
Cell reproduction: Cell cycle, processes of mitosis and meiosis.
Introduction to classification: The enormous variety of living things, the need for classification to cope with this variety; taxonomy and phylogeny; shortcomings of a two-kingdom classification- plants and animals, status of viruses and bacteriophage; the five-kingdom classification-Monera, Protisa, Fungi, Plantae and Animalia.
Unit 4 :
The basic features of classification: Concept of species, taxon and categories-hierarchical levels of classification, binomial nomenclature, principles of classification and nomenclature.
Kingdom Monera:- Archaebacteria-life in extreme environments, General account of bacteria, actinomycetes & cyanobacteria. Examples to illustrate autotrophic and heterotrophic life styles. Economic importance of Monera- mineralizer, nitrogen fixer, in cycling materials, symbiotic forms, disease producers.
Kingdom Protisa:- Eukaryotic unicellular organisms. Various life styles shown in the major phyia; sexual and asexual reproduction in protisa( brief outline only); flagella and cilia as locomotary organs of profisa, examples of common
Kingdom Fungi:- Zygomycetes; Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes; Economic importance of fugi-decomposers & parasitic forms. Lichens and mycorrhizae.
Kingdom plantae:- Complex autotrophs-red. brown and green algae ( chlamydomonas, spirogyra); conquest of land; bryophytes (Funaria), ferms (Dryopteris), gymnosperms (pinus) and angiosperms. Vascularization, development of flower, fruit and seed( in brief only).
Morphology and anatomy of flowering plants:- Morphology and functions of root, stem, leaf and their modifications. Tissue systems in flowering plants-meristematic and permanent; Primary structure of dicot and monocot root and stem; secondary growth.
Reproduction and development in angiosperms:- Asexual reproduction and sexual reproduction. Structure and function of flower, inflorescence; development of male and female gametophytes; pollination; fertilization; development of endosperm, embryo, seed and fruit, seed dispersal,
Water relations:- Water relations of plants cells, water potential, absorption and transport of water in plant; root pressure; ascent of sap, transpiration and stomatal mechanism.
Plant nutrition:- a. Mineral nutrition: essential elements, major functions of different elements, passive and active uptake of minerals, deficiency symptoms. b. Photosynthesis; photochemical and biosynthetics phases, diversity in photosynthetic pathways, photosynthetic election transport, photophosphorylation & photorespriation. c. Special modes, of nutrition in plants.
A general account of cellular respiration:- Fermentation, biological oxidation, glycolysis and Krebs cycle (graphic cycle only), mitochondrial electron transport chain, high energy bonds and oxidative phosphorylation.
Plant growth and Plant movements:- Hormones and growth regulation, role of plant hormones in relation to seed dormancy, germination, apical dominance, senescence, and abscission. Agricultural uses of synthetic growth regulators. Brief account of phytochrome as photomorphogenetic pigment. Plant movements- a brief account.
Heredity and Variation:- a. Mendel's experiments and idea of factors. b. Mendel's laws of inheritance. Chromosomes and Chromosomal basis of inheritance (in brief), some basic terms used in inheritance studies. c. Other patterns of inheritance-incomplete dominance, multiplegenes, linkage and crossing over, sex linked inheritance. Genetic variation- recombination, mutation, phenotypic expression in haploid organisms.
DNA as genetic material, its replication, transcription and translation:- Evidence from bacterial transformation and viral infection. Structure and replication of DNA. Protein synthesis-Genetic code, Central Dogma, transcription, translation, Effects of mutations on protein synthesis.
Gene expression:- In prokaryotes and eukaryotes, Genetic engineering.
Species and population:- Origin and concept of species, population, interaction between environment and population.
Biotic community:- Interaction between different species, biotic stability, change in the community; succession.
Ecosystem: Interaction between biotic and abiotic components, major ecosystems, man made ecosystem-Agroecosystem.
Biosphere:- , Flow of energy, biogeochemical cycles-calcium and sulphur, ecological imbalance and its consequences.
Conservation of natural resources:- Renewable and non-renewable resources (in brief). Water and land management, wasteland development.
Forest conservation:- Conservation of forest; Indian Forests, importance of forests, hazards of deforestation, afforestation,
Environmental pollution:- Air and water pollution, sources, major pollutants of big cities of our country, their effects and methods of control; pollution due to radioactive substances, disposal of nuclear waste, effect and control of radiation pollution: Noise pollution-sources and effects.
Application of Botany:- Biofertilisers-green manures, nitrogen fixation; symbiotic and nonsymbiotic.
BIOLOGY - ZOOLOGY
Nature and scope of Biology:- Branches of Biology; its relation with other sciences; techniques and instruments, why to study Biology; serendipity and Scientific method.
Being Alive :- What does it mean? Present approach to understand life process; molecular approach; life as an expression of energy: steady state and homeostatis; self duplication and survival; adaptation; death as a positive part of iife; and attempt to define life in the light of the above.
Origin of life, evolution and its maintenance:- Origin of life, Oparin Haldane's theory miller-urey experiments. Evolution, the-living crust and interdependence, our place and our role, the positive and negative aspect of progress in biological sciences. The future of living world; Identification of human responsibility in shaping our future.
Cell as a unit of life:- Cell as a basic unit; cell as a self-contained unit; Cell theory; Unicellular & multicellular organisms; flow of energy and information; compartmentalization for cellular life; structure of eukaryotic cells and its difference from prokaryotic cells.
Small molecules of the cell:- Cellular pool: Chemistry, cellular location and functional significance of mono and oligosaccharides; lipids; amino acids; nucleotides; water & minerals.
Macromolecules in cells:- Chemistry, cellular location and functional significance of polysaccharides, proteins and nucleic acids,
Enzymes:- Chemical nature, classification, properties, mechanism of action-enzyme substrate complex, inhibition, ailosteric modulation(in brief).
Unit 8 :
Bio- membranes:- Unit membrane concept, fluid mosaic, model, membrane transport, exocytosis and endocytosis- membranes and cellular movement.
Kingdom Animalia:- Animal body pattern and symmetry; Body cavity in invertebrate and vertebrate phyla. Salient feature with reference to habitat and examples of phvlaporifera, Coelenterata, helminthes, annelids, Mollusca, Arthropoda, echinoderms; Chordata-(classes-fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals) highlighting major characters (Morphological notes on examples of different phyla of animals are not required).
Wild life:- Causes for extinction of some wild life, steps taken to conserve the remaining species, concept of endangered species-Indian examples.
Animal tissues:- Epithelial , connective, muscular, nervous.
Animal nutrition:- Digestive system of prawn, digestive system of man; digestive processes in man: absorption and egestion.
Gas exchange and transport-Pulmonary gas exchange in humans and organs involved; transport of gases in blood; Gas exchange in aqueous medium (as in bony fish).
Circulation of body fluids:- Closed (human) and open(prawn) blood vascular systems.structure and pumping action of heart, pulmonary and systemic circulation. Heart rate and pulse, blood pressure. Autorhythmicity of heart beat; lymph.
Excretion and Osmoregulation:- Amontelism, Urecotelism, Urecotelism; Excretory organs in man, composition and formation of urine. Role of kidney in osmoregulation, brief account of counter current system(details not required), role of ADH, role of skin and lungs in excretion.
Movements and Locomotion- Study of human skeleton, joints, red and white muscles in movement, mechanism of musle contraction.
Nervous coordination and Receptors:- Components of human nervous system- central nervous system, peripheral nervous system, autonomic nervious system, Structure and function of brain and spinal cord. Transmission of nerve impulse, reflex action. Basic structure and functions of sense organs.
Hormonal Coordination:- Endocrine organs in humans, hormones and their function, diseases caused by hormonal imbalance, roles of hormones as messengers and regulators hypothalamo hyphysial-axis, feedback, control.
Animal reproduction and development-Asexual and sexual reproduction; reproductive organs of human male and female; gametogenesis and differentiation of gametes; reproductive cycle in the human female: chemical and physical features of fertilization. Development of zygote upto three germinal layers, fate of germ layers.
Growth, Repair; regeneration; ageing and death:- Growth-cell growth rates and hormonal control of growth in humans. Repairs and regeneration: principal types of regeneration and mechanism of regeneration. Ageing: morphological, physiological, cellular and extracellular changes, theories of ageing, biological meaning of death.
Organic Evaluation: Inter-relationship among living organisms. Evidences for evolution-fossil evidence and geological time scale; morphological evidence-homologous, analogous and vestigal organs. Embryological evidence-similarities among embryos different vertebrate classes; evidence from biogeography
Darwin's major contributions-Variation & Natural selection:- a. Common ancestry. b. Natural selection as mechanism of evolution, Elementary forces of evolution.
Variation:- Mutation and recombination as sources of variability; role of selection; genetic basis of adaptation-Lederberg's replica plating experiments; speciation. Isolation—geographical and reproductive.
Common Human Diseases:- a. Communicable diseases—viral, bacterial, protozoan diseases includingp STD and diseases spread through blood transfusion such as AIDS and hepatitis. b. Immune responses—vaccines and antisero. allergies and inflammations. c. Non Communicable diseases—inherited diseases and sexlinked diseases; genetic incompatibility and genetic counseling. Cancer-major types, causes, diagnosis and treatment. Tissues and organ transplantation.
Human population growth: Problems and control; inequality of sexes: test tuble babies, & amniocentesis.
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