PAET 2019 Chemistry Syllabus
Punjab Ayush Entrance Test ( PAET ) Medical Entrance Examination Chemistry Syllabus – 2018
For BAMS & BHMS Courses
Atoms. Molecules and Chemical Arithmetic: Measurement in Chemistry (significant figures, SI units, Dimensional analysis). Chemical classification of matter (mixtures, compounds and elements, and purification). Law of chemical combination and Dalton's Atomic Theory, Atomic Mass(mole concept, determination of chemical formulae). Chemical equation (balancing chemical equation and calculations using chemical equations).
Atomic Structure: Constituents of the atom (discovery of electron, nuclear model of the atom). Electronic structure of atoms: Nature of light and electromagnetic waves, atom spectra, Bohr's model of hydrogen atom, quantum mechanical model of the atom. Dual Nature of Matter and Radiation. The De-Broglie relation The Uncertainty principle Orbitals and Quantum Numbers, Shapes of Orbitals. Electronic configuration of atoms, Aufbau principle.
Chemical Families -Periodic properties:-Mendeleev's Perodic Table Modern Perodic Law periodic trends in properties(ionization energy, electron affinity, atomic radii, valance, periodicity in properties of compounds).
Bonding and Molecular Structure:-Chemical Bonds and Lewis Structure. Shapes of molecules (VSEPR theory). Quantum theory of the covalent bond (hydrogen and some other simple molecules, carbon compounds, hybridization, boron and beryllium compounds). Coordinate covalent bond (Ionic bond as an extreme case of polar covalent bond, ionic character of molecules and polar molecules). Bonding in solid state(ionic, molecular and covalent solids, metals). The Hydrogen Bond. Resonance Molecular orbital Method.
Chemistry of Representative Elements:- The chemistry of s and p block elements from the stand point of periodic table: Group / Elements: Hydrogen (position in periodic table occurrence, isotopes, prepartion, properties, reactions and uses), alkali metals (sodium and potassium, occurrence, properties and uses), important compound NaCI, Na2CO3, NaHCO3, NaOH, KC1, KOH. Group 2 Elements: Alkaline earth metals, Magnesium, and Calcium (occurrence, extraction, properties and uses), important compounds; MgCI2, MgSO4, Ca(OH)2, CaCO3, CaSO4 , plaster of paris. Group 13 Elements: Boron(occurrence, isolation, physical and chemical properties, borax and boric acid, uses of boron and its compounds), Aluminium (occurrence, extraction, properties and uses, compounds of Aluminium) and boron family. Group 14 Elements: Carbon, Silicon (occurrence, preparation and properties, silicates, silica and glass), tin and lead(occurrence, extraction, properties,uses and their compounds; oxides, sulphides, halides) and silicon family. Group 15 Elements: Nitrogen (preparation, properties, uses, compounds of nitrogen: ammonia, oxides of nitrogen, nitric acid, preparation, properties and uses), phosphorus (occurrence, preparation and properties, oxides and oxy acids of phosphorus, chemical fertilizers), and nitrogen family. Gr oup 16 E I e m e n ts:. Oxygen (occurrence preparation, properties and reactions, uses, simple oxides, ozone), water and hydrogen peroxide [structure of water molecule and its aggregates, physical and chemical properties of water, hard and soft water, water softening, hydrogen peroxide-preparation, properties, structure and uses], sulphur (occurrence, and extraction, properties and reactions, oxides,sulphuric acid- preparation, properties and uses, sodium thiosulpate) and oxygen family. Group 17 Elements: Halogens (occurrence, preparation, properties, hydrogen halides, uses of halogens) and halogen family. Group 18 Elements: Noble gases (discovery, occurrence, isolation, physical properties, chemistry of noble gases and their uses). Preparation and properties of a few important compounds of represntative elements. Cement, biological role of sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium. Zinc and mercury(occurrence and extraction, properties and compounds, oxides, halides, sulphides and sulphates and uses).
Transition Metals including Lanthanides:- Electronic configuration, General Characteristics / properties. Oxidation states. Inner transition elements: general features,First Row Transition Metals and general properties of their compounds, oxides, halides and sulphides. lron(occurrence and extraction, compounds of iron: oxides, halides, sulphides and sulphates and alloy steel). General properties of second and third row transition elements (group wise discussion ). Copper, Silver and Gold (occurrence and extraction, properties and uses, Compounds—oxides, sulphides, halides and photography). ' Preparation of few compounds: potassium dichromate, potassium permanganate and others. General trends in chemical properties of lanthanides and actinides.
Coordination Chemistry and Organometallics:- Coordination compounds, nomenclature, isomerism in coordination compounds, bonding in coordination compounds, stability of coordination compounds, application of coordination compounds. compounds containing metal- carbon bond, applications of organmetallics.
Carbon and its Compounds, structures & Shapes of Hydrocarbons:- Elemental carbon, inorganic carbon compounds (oxides, halides carbides). Organic compounds Nomenclature of organic compounds (hydrocarbons, functional groups). Some common organic compounds (alkenes, alkynes, arenas, alcohols, aldehydes and ketones, halides, acids, nitro- compounds and amines). Alkanes (structure, isomerism, conformation) Strerioisomerism and chirality(origin of chirality, optical relation, racemic mixture). Alkenes (isomerism including cis-trans) Alkynes. Arenas(structure of benzene, structure, isomerism in arenas).
Preparation and properties of hydrocarbons & Organic halides:- Sources of hydrocarbons (origin and composition of coal and petroleum; Hydrocarbons from coal and petroleum, cracking and refining, quality of gasoline-octane number, gasoline additives),Laboratory preparation of alkenes (preparation from unsaturated hydrocarbons, alkyi halides and carboxylic acids). Laboratory preparation of alkenes (preparation from alcohol; alkyi halides). Laboratory preparation of alkynes(boiling and melting points, solubility and density). Reactions of hydrocarbons(oxidation, addition, substitution and miscellaneous reactions). Nomenclature of compounds containing halogen atoms, haloalkanes, haloarenes, correlation of physical properties with their structures, chemical properties and uses. A few important polyhalogen compounds-dichlorethanes, chloroform, carbon tetrachioride, DDT, benzene hexachloride.
Hydroxy Compounds and Ethers: Nomenclature of compounds containing hydroxyl groups: alcohols and phenols, Correlation of physical properties with their structures, chemical properties and uses. Polyhdyric Compounds, ethane 1, 2 dial. Propane-1, 2, 3-triol. Ethers: nomenclature, methods of preparation, correlation of physical properties with their structures, chemical properties and uses.
Carbonyl Compunds and Carboxylic acids: Aldehydes, Ketones, carboxylic acids and their derivaties. Nomenclature of aldhydes, Ketones, carboxylic acids and their derivatives (acylhalides, acid anhydrides, amides and esters), methods of preparation, correlation of physical properties with their structure, chemical properties and uses (Specific compounds are not to be stressed).
Organic Nitrogen compounds: A brief description of the chemistry of the carbon compounds containing nitrogen, cynanides and isocyanides: nitro- compounds and amines and their methods of preparation, correlation of physical properties with structure, chemical reactions and uses.
Purification and Characterisation of Organic Compounds: Purification (crystallization, sublimation, distillation, differential extraction chromatography).Qualitative analysis (analysis of nitrogen, sulphur, phosphorus and halogens). Quantitative analysis(estimation of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, halogens, sulphur, phosphorus and oxygen). Determination of molecular mass (Vector Mayor's method, volumetric method). Calculations of empirical and molecular formulae. Numerical problems in organic quantitative analysis. Modern method of structure elucidation.
States of Matter: Gaseous state (measurable properties of gases, Boyle's law, Charle's law and absolute scale of temperature. Avogadro's hypothesis. ideal gas equation, Dalton's law of partial pressure). Kinetic molecular theory of gases( the microscopic model of a gas, deviation from ideal behaviour). The solid state (classification of solids, x-ray studies of crystal lattices and unit cell, packing of constituent particles in crystal). Liquid state(properties of liquids, vapour pressure, surface tension, viscosity)
Solutions: Types of solutions. Vapour pressure of solutions and Raoult's law, Colligative properties. Electrovalent solutions.
Chemical Thermodynamics:First Law of Thermodynamics (Internal energy, enthalpy, application of the first law of thermodynamics). (Enthalpy change in a reaction. Hess's law of constant heat summation, numericals based on these concepts). Heat of reactions(heat of neutralization, heat of combustion, heat of fusion and vapourisation). Sources of energy (conservation of energy sources and identification of alternative sources, pollution associated with consumption of fuels, the sun as the primary source). Second Law of Thermodnamics (Entropy, free energy, spontanicity of chemical reaction, free energy change, chemical equilibrium, free energy as available for useful work). Third Law of Thermodynamics.
Chemical Equilibrium: Equilibrium involving physical changes (solid-liquid, liquid-gas equilibria, equilibrium involving dissolution of solids in liquids or gases in liquids, general characteristics of equilibrium involving physical process). Equilibria involving chemical systems (the law of chemical equilibrium, the magnitude of the equilibrium constant, numerical problems). Effect of changing the conditions of system at equilibrium (change of concertration, change of temperature, effect of catalyst-le Chatelier's principle). Equilibria involving ions (ionization of electrolytes, weak and strong electroylytes, acid-base equilibrium, various concepts of acids and bases, ionization of water, water, pH, solubility product, numericals based on these concepts).
Redox Reactions: Oxidation and reduction as an electron transfer process. Redox reactions in aqueous solutions-electrochemical cells. EMF of galvanic cell. Dependence of EMF on concentration and temperature (Nernst equation and numerical problems based on it). Electrolysis. Oxidation number (rules for assigning oxidation number, redox reactions in terms of oxidation number and nomenclature). Balancing of oxidation reduction equations.
Electrochemistry: Electrolytic conduction. Voltoic Cell. Electrode potential and Electromotive force. Gib's free energy and cell potential. Electrode potential and Electrolysis. Some commercial cells (batteries and fuel cell). Corrosion.
Chemical Kinetics:- Rate of Reaction. Rate of expression. Factors affecting rate of reaction. Order of a reaction (suitable example). Units of rates and specific rate constants. Order of reaction and concentration. (study will be confined to first order only). Temperature dependence of rate constant. Fast reactions. Photochemical reactions.
Solid state, Surfaces and Catalysis:- Solid state Structure of simple ionic compounds. Close-packed structure. ionic radii. Silicates (elementary idea only). Imperfection in solids. Properties of solids. Surfaces: Adsorbption. Colloids. Emulsions, Micelles. Modern Developments, Interfaces. STEM & Technology Catalysis. Homogeneous. Heterogeneous. Structure of catalysts.
Nuclear and Radio Chemistry:- Nature of radiation from radioactive substances. Nuclear structure and nuclear properties, Nuclear reactions. Radioactive disintegration series. Artificial transmutation of elements-Isotopes and their uses. Radio carbon-dating. Synthetic elements.
Synthetic & Natural Polymers:- Classification of polymers, some important' natural and synthetic polymers (with stress on their general methods of preparation). Some common examples and their important uses.
Bio-Molecules:- Carbohydrates: Monosaccha rides, Disaccharides, poiysaccharides, Aminoacids and peptides: Structure & classification, Properties of amino acids. Peptides: Structure and properties, biologically important peptides. Proteins and enzymes: Structure of proteins, some important proteins, enzymes. Nucleic acids: Chemical properties of nucleic acids. Biological functions of nucleic acids: Protein synthesis, bio-technology-basics. Lipids: Structure, membrance structure and functions. Evolution: Chemical evolution, origin of life. (Note: Structure of complicated molecules are not to be evaluated).
Unit 25 :
Chemistry of Biological Processes: Elementary idea of chemistry of digestion, respiration, haemoglobin and blood, photosynthesis, Immune system - antibodies, hormones, chemistry of some important diseases.
Chemistry in Action:- A descriptive account of chemistry involved in the use of important chemicals in everyday life such as; dyes, chemicals in medicines, polymers and fibres, plant growth hormones, pheromones; Fertility- Contraceptive. Materials-ceramics. protistadiatoms, dinofiagellates, slime moulds, protozoans & symbiotic forms.
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